Hormonal profile in patients with congestive heart failureKontoleon PE, Anastasiou-Nana MI, Papapetrou PD, Alexopoulos G, Ktenas V, Rapti AC, Tsagalou EP, Nanas JN. 2nd Endocrinology Division, 'Alexandra' Hospital, Athens, Greece.
BACKGROUND: Recent progress has been made in the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of growth hormone action and of its effects on cardiac tissue. The aim of this study was to measure growth hormone concentrations, along with various other hormones, in patients with stable chronic congestive heart failure due to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. METHODS: The study included 23 ambulatory men, 51.2+/-9.3 years of age, on standard medical therapy for heart failure due to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. All patients underwent clinical and laboratory evaluations, including echocardiogram, radionuclide ventriculography, right heart catheterization, coronary angiography, and right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy. Serum or plasma concentrations of growth, thyroid, sex and adrenal hormones were measured in all patients and compared with those found in 20 age-matched healthy men. RESULTS: Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I, and free testosterone values in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure were 0.37+/-0.2 ng/ml, 123.7+/-50 ng/ml and 48.6+/-23.8 pmol/l, respectively, versus 0.5+/-0.4 ng/ml (P<0.01), 236.3+/-66.4 ng/ml (P<0.001) and 105+/-17 pmol/l (P<0.01), respectively, in the healthy age-matched individuals. All other hormone concentrations were comparable in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic heart failure due to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy is associated with a significant decrease in growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I, and testosterone concentrations, probably due to chronic disease.
Growth hormone therapy in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: preliminary observations of a pilot studyJose VJ, Zechariah TU, George P, Jonathan V. Department of Cardiology, Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore.
The effects of growth hormone in six patients with dilated cardiomyopathy were evaluated in this study. The patients were studied at baseline, after six months of therapy and at six months after stopping the treatment. They were given two units of growth hormone on alternate days by subcutaneous injection. There was marked improvement in the symptomatic class with treatment (NYHA class 3.4 +/- 0.5 vs 2 +/- 0; p = 0.04). There was also significant increase in the inteventricular septal wall thickness (6.4 +/- 1.5 mm vs 10.4 +/- 0.5 mm; p = 0.04). Left ventricular posterior wall thickness also increased significantly (7.2 +/- 1.3 mm vs 10.2 +/- 0.8 mm; p = 0.04). These changes were partially reversed by the end of six months of treatment but the symptomatic status of these patients was better than before. The administration of growth hormone for six months in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy results in significant improvement in the symptomatic class, which could be considered as an additional line of management in patients with heart failure in dilated cardiomyopathy.
Growth hormone treatment in dilated cardiomyopathyPerrot A, Ranke MB, Dietz R, Osterziel KJ. Charitz/Franz-Volhard-Klinik am Max Delbruck Centrum fur Molekulare Medizin, Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
Treatment with human recombinant growth hormone (GH) has yielded conflicting results in patients with congestive heart failure. We analyzed the baseline somatotrophic axis in 50 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Then, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of GH was performed. We randomly allocated these patients to treatment with subcutaneous GH (2 IU daily) or placebo for a minimum of 12 weeks. The primary end-points were the effect on left ventricular (LV) mass and systolic wall stress. The secondary endpoint was LV ejection fraction. Severity of heart failure as determined by cardiac index, LV end-diastolic diameter, and plasma noradrenaline concentrations correlated markedly with baseline serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels. Patients in the GH group had an increase in LV mass compared with the placebo group (p = 0.0001). There was no significant difference in LV systolic wall stress, mean blood pressure, or systemic vascular resistance between the two groups. New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification and distance in 6-minute walk test remained unchanged. The change in IGF-1 concentrations between GH and placebo group was notably related (p = 0.0001) to the change in LV mass (p = 0.0001). The GH-induced increase of IGF-1 predicted the changes of ejection fraction (p < 0.05). A marked increase of ejection fraction of 7% was observed in patients whose IGF-1 increased by more than the median increase, in comparison to the patients with an increase below the median (p = 0.03). Serum levels of IGF-1 reflecting GH secretion are diminished in relation to severity of heart failure in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. GH-induced increases of IGF-1 of more than 80 pg/mL caused notable improvement of ejection fraction. There is a marked increase in LV mass in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy given GH. Changes in LV mass are related to changes in serum IGF-1 concentrations.
Growth hormone therapy in heart failureStrohm O, Friedrich MG, v Harsdorf R, Osterziel K, Dietz R. Charite, Franz-Volhard-Klinik am Max-Delbruck-Centrum, Wiltbergstr. 50, D-13125 Berlin, Germany,
Clinical and experimental data in animals and patients with endstage heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy or ischemic heart disease suggest a beneficial role of growth factors like human recombinant growth hormone or insulin-like growth factor I. Their cardiac effects are an increase in myocardial mass and a decrease in systolic wall stress. Based on the results of animal studies and of preliminary studies in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, double-blind and placebo-controlled studies have proven the increase in myocardial mass and a significant reduction of left ventricular wall stress, as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging.The risk of the additional therapy with human growth factors in this high-risk group of patients with a high mortality is justified, if this new approach becomes a possible alternative to cardiac transplantation or a bridge toward transplantation.If future randomized studies in larger patient groups with an individualized substitution therapy with growth hormone and/or IGF-I can demonstrate a beneficial effect on mortality and morbidity, this new therapeutic approach could become an attractive alternative in these high-risk patients.
Dilated cardiomyopathy and growth hormoneDreifuss P. Facharzt fur Innere Medizin, Bottmingerstrasse 38, 4102 Binningen, Switzerland. email@example.com
The data from animal and human in vivo studies suggest that cardiac function is dependent in part on the normal function of the GH/IGF-1 axis (growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1). So far encouraging results from phase II and III clinical trials evaluating the effects of intermittent GH treatment in patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) due to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) have been published. In these studies, growth hormone (i.e., DNA-derived recombinant human growth hormone) was not used alone but in addition to standard optimal therapy for CHF. The following rationale is the basis of this new approach for the treatment of CHF due to DCM: According to Laplace's Law cardiac wall stress (i.e., the force acting per unit of cross-sectional area of the ventricular wall) is directly related to intraventricular pressure and ventricular radius and inversely related to ventricular wall thickness. Cardiac (ventricular) wall stress is increased in DCM (mainly because of the dilatation of the ventricles and to a minor extent because of the relative reduction in ventricular thickness). GH is capable of increasing ventricular wall thickness in DCM thus reducing cardiac wall stress which in turn leads to an improvement in systolic cardiac performance.
Patients with dilated cardiomyopathy show reduction of the somatotroph responsiveness to GHRH both alone and combined with arginineBroglio F, Benso A, Gottero C, Vito LD, Aimaretti G, Fubini A, Arvat E, Bobbio M, Ghigo E. Division of Endocrinology and Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
OBJECTIVE: Altered function of the GH/IGF-I axis in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) has been reported. In fact, DCM patients show reduction of IGF-I levels, which could reflect slight peripheral GH resistance or, alternatively, reduced somatotroph secretion. Spontaneous GH secretion has been reported to be altered by some but not by other authors, whereas the GH response to GHRH, but not that to GH-releasing peptides, seems reduced in DCM patients. On the other hand, it is well known that the GH response to GHRH in humans is markedly potentiated by arginine (ARG), which probably acts via inhibition of hypothalamic somatostatin release; in fact the GHRH+ARG test is known as one of the most reliable to evaluate the maximal secretory capacity of somatotroph cells. METHODS: In order to further clarify the somatotroph function in DCM, in well-nourished patients with DCM (34 male, 4 female; age (mean+/-s.e. m.) 57.8+/-1.1 years; body mass index (BMI) 24.6+/-0.6kg/m(2); left ventricular ejection fraction 23.2+/-1.6%; New York Heart Association classification I/1, II/17, III/18, IV/2) we studied the GH response to GHRH (1.0 microgram/kg i.v.) alone or combined with ARG (0.5g/kg i.v.). The results in DCM patients were compared with those in age-matched control subjects (CS) (39 male, 7 female; age 58.9+/-1.0 years; BMI 23.2+/-0.3kg/m(2)). RESULTS: Mean IGF-I levels in DCM patients were lower than in CS (144.3+/-6.9 vs 175.1+/-8. 4 microgram/l, P<0.05) whereas basal GH levels were similar in both groups (1.7+/-0.3 vs 1.7+/-0.3 microgram/l). The GH response to GHRH in DCM patients was lower (P<0.05) than that in CS (GH peak 6.5+/-1.2 vs 10.7+/-2.1 microgram/l). In both groups the GH response to GHRH+ARG was higher (P<0.001) than that to GHRH alone. However, the GH response to GHRH+ARG in DCM patients remained clearly lower (P<0.01) than that in CS (18.3+/-3.2 vs 34.1+/-4.6 microgram/l). The GH response to GHRH alone and combined with ARG was not associated with the severity of the disease. CONCLUSION: DCM patients show blunted GH responses to GHRH both alone and combined with ARG. Evidence that ARG does not restore the GH response to GHRH in DCM patients makes it unlikely that the somatotroph hyporesponsiveness to the neurohormone reflects hyperactivity of hypothalamic somatostatinergic neurons.
A growth hormone secretagogue prevents ischemic-induced mortality independently of the growth hormone pathway in dogs with chronic dilated cardiomyopathyShen YT, Lynch JJ, Hargreaves RJ, Gould RJ. Department of Pharmacology, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
To determine the functional role of growth hormone (GH) secretagogue in myocardium with ischemia, left ventricular (LV) pressure gauge, wall thickness crystals, coronary occluder, pacers, and catheters were implanted in 26 dogs. Beginning 1 week after ventricular pacing (240 beats/min) was initiated, dogs were treated (s.c.) with GH releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6, n = 8, 0.2 mg/kg/day), GH (n = 7, 0.06 mg/kg/day), or vehicle (n = 11). Two weeks of pacing was associated with similar decreases in LV pressure, rate of change of LV pressure, systolic wall thickening (WT), and an increase in left atrial pressure in all groups. Coronary artery occlusion (CAO) resulted in a similar loss of WT in ischemic regions, which did not recover during reperfusion period in all groups. WT in nonischemic regions, however, was enhanced in the GHRP-6 group compared with the GH and vehicle groups, e.g., increase of WT after 1 h of reperfusion was greater (p <0.05) in the GHRP-6 (+53 +/- 8%) than in the GH (+14 +/- 12%) or (+14 +/- 6%). There were no differences in myocardial blood flow, hemodynamics, or arrhythmic beats among all groups during CAO and reperfusion periods. Strikingly, no dogs in the GHRP-6 group died during CAO, whereas the survival rates for GH and vehicle groups were 57 and 55%, respectively. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that chronic therapy with a GH secretagogue prevents sudden death in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy subjected to acute ischemia. This seems to be related to an enhanced nonischemic compensatory mechanism mediated by the GH secretagogue receptors rather than via the GH/insulin growth factor-1 pathway.
A 24-hour comparison of serum growth hormone concentrations in patients with heart failure versus healthy controlsDuncan B, Moyna NM, Heller GV, McGill C, Katten D, Finta L, Velusamy M, Kelsey A, Wieczorek S, Wu AH, White CM. Division of Cardiology, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut 06102-5037, USA.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare endogenous serum growth hormone concentrations over a 24-hour period in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and matched controls. DESIGN: Prospective, 24-hour, endogenous concentration comparison. SETTING: Hospital research center. PATIENTS: Eight evaluable patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and 10 healthy control subjects, matched for age and sex. INTERVENTION: Over a 24-hour period, blood was drawn from the study participants every 20 minutes for determination of growth hormone. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: For each patient, the area under the concentration-time curve from time 0-24 hours (AUC0-24), maximum concentration (Cmax), and minimum concentration (Cnadir) of growth hormone were determined. The AUC0-24 and Cmax were 74% (p < 0.05) and 62% (p < 0.05) lower in patients with CHF than in controls, respectively. The Cnadir for all participants was 0 microg/L. Variability in growth hormone concentrations over the 24 hours was considerable for all study participants. CONCLUSIONS: Growth hormone concentrations are suppressed over a 24-hour period in patients with CHF versus healthy controls. Variability in levels throughout the day suggests that a single point evaluation cannot be used to determine deficiency or abundance of growth hormone.
Growth hormone administration reduces circulating proinflammatory cytokines and soluble Fas/soluble Fas ligand system in patients with chronic heart failure secondary to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathyAdamopoulos S, Parissis JT, Georgiadis M, Karatzas D, Paraskevaidis J, Kroupis C, Karavolias G, Koniavitou K, Kremastinos DT. Second Department of Cardiology, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Athens, Greece. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that an abnormal proinflammatory cytokine expression and apoptotic process contribute to adverse left ventricular remodeling and progress of chronic heart failure. This study investigates the effects of growth hormone (GH) administration on serum levels of representative proinflammatory cytokines and soluble apoptosis mediators in patients with chronic heart failure secondary to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC). METHODS: Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), its soluble receptors (sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII), interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), soluble Fas (sFas) and soluble Fas Ligand (sFasL) were determined (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method) in 10 patients with IDC (New York Heart Association class III, ejection fraction 24% +/- 2%) before and after a 3-month subcutaneous administration of 4 IU GH every other day (randomized crossover design). Peak oxygen consumption (Vo(2)max) was also used to evaluate the functional status of patients with IDC. RESULTS: Treatment with GH produced a significant reduction in serum levels of TNF-alpha (8.2 +/- 1.2 vs 5.7 +/- 1.1 pg/mL, P <.05), sTNF-RI (3.9 +/- 0.4 vs 3.2 +/- 0.3 ng/mL, P <.05), sTNF-RII (2.6 +/- 0.3 vs 2.2 +/- 0.2 ng/mL, P <.05), IL-6 (5.5 +/- 0.6 vs 4.4 +/- 0.4 pg/mL, P =.05), sIL-6R (32.7 +/- 3.0 vs 28.2 +/- 3.0 ng/mL, P <.05), sFas (4.4 +/- 0.8 vs 3.1 +/- 0.6 ng/mL, P <.05), and sFasL (34.2 +/- 11.7 vs 18.8 +/- 7.3 pg/mL, P <.01). A significant improvement was also observed in VO2max after the completion of 3 months' treatment with GH (15.0 +/- 0.8 vs 17.2 +/- 1.0 mL/kg/min, P <.05). Good correlations were found between GH-induced reduction in TNF-alpha levels and increase in VO2max (r = -0.64, P <.05) as well as between GH-induced reduction in sFasL and increase in VO2max (r = -0.56, P =.08 ). CONCLUSIONS: GH administration reduces serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and soluble Fas/FasL system in patients with IDC. These immunomodulatory effects may be associated with improvement in clinical performance and exercise capacity of patients with IDC.
Growth hormone and the heartColao A, Marzullo P, Di Somma C, Lombardi G. Department of Molecular and Clinical Endocrinology and Oncology, Federico II University, Naples, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
Impaired cardiovascular function has recently been demonstrated to potentially reduce life expectancy both in GH deficiency and excess. Experimental and clinical studies have supported the evidence that GH and IGF-I are implicated in cardiac development. In most patients with acromegaly a specific cardiomyopathy, characterized by myocardial hypertrophy with interstitial fibrosis, lympho-mononuclear infiltration and areas of monocyte necrosis, results in biventricular concentric hypertrophy. In contrast, patients with childhood or adulthood-onset GH deficiency (GHD) may suffer both from structural cardiac abnormalities, such as narrowing of cardiac walls, and functional impairment, that combine to reduce diastolic filling and impair left ventricular response to peak exercise. In addition, GHD patients may have an increase in vascular intima-media thickness and a higher occurrence of atheromatous plaques, that can further aggravate the haemodynamic conditions and contribute to increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk. However, several lines of evidence have suggested that the cardiovascular abnormalities can be partially reversed by suppressing GH and IGF-I levels in acromegaly or after GH replacement therapy in GHD patients. Recently, much attention has been focussed on the ability of GH to increase cardiac mass suggesting its possible use in the treatment of chronic nonendocrine heart failure. In fact, GH administration can induce an improvement in haemodynamic and clinical status in some patients. Although these data need to be confirmed in more extensive studies, such promising results seem to open new perspectives for GH treatment in humans.
Role of growth hormone in chronic heart failure: therapeutic implicationsVolterrani M, Giustina A, Manelli F, Cicoira MA, Lorusso R, Giordano A.Division of Cardiology, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, Medical Center, Gussago, Italy. email@example.com
Chronic heart failure is a multi-etiological cardiovascular disorder with high prevalence and poor prognosis. Medical treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy is aimed at alleviating heart failure symptoms. Diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and very recently, beta-blockers have been shown to have favorable effects on symptoms, exercise capacity and mortality. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 are involved in several physiological processes such as the control of muscle mass and function, body composition and regulation of nutrient metabolism. The role of GH and IGF-1 as modulators of myocardial structure and function is well established. Receptors for both GH and IGF-1 are expressed by cardiac myocytes; therefore, GH may act directly on the heart or via the induction of local or systemic IGF-1, while IGF-1 may act by endocrine, paracrine or autocrine mechanisms. Patients with acromegaly have an increased propensity to develop ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular diseases; impaired cardiac efficiency can also be observed in patients with GH deficiency. Animal models of pressure and volume overload have demonstrated up-regulation of cardiac IGF-1 production and expression of GH and IGF-1 receptors, implying that the local regulation of these factors is influenced by hemodynamic changes. Moreover, experimental studies suggest that GH and IGF-1 have stimulatory effects on myocardial contractility, possibly mediated by changes in intracellular calcium handling. Heart failure is due to ventricular dilation with inadequate wall thickening that leads to impaired cardiac performance; therefore, based on previous evidence we would expect beneficial effects from the use of GH in these patients. Several papers have highlighted the positive influence of GH in the regulation of heart development and performance. In patients with GH deficiency, GH administration dramatically improves cardiac function. In small open studies, acute and chronic GH treatment has demonstrated beneficial effects in patients with heart failure due to ischemic or idiopathic cardiomyopathy. Recently, two randomized, placebo-controlled studies did not show any significant GH-mediated improvement in cardiac performance in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, despite significant increases in IGF-1. Acquired GH resistance might be an important feature of severe heart failure and explain the diverse responses to GH therapy observed in different patients. Whether GH treatment will finally find a place in the treatment of heart failure, and with which modalities, remains to be established.
The somatotrophic system in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: relation of insulin-like growth factor-1 and its alterations during growth hormone therapy to cardiac functionOsterziel KJ, Ranke MB, Strohm O, Dietz R. Franz-Volhard-Klinik am Max Delbruck Centrum fur Molekulare Medizin, Universitatsklinikum Charite, Humboldt Universitat, Berlin, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: Treatment with human recombinant growth hormone has yielded conflicting results in patients with congestive heart failure. In addition, growth hormone resistance has been reported in severe heart failure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the somatotrophic axis and effects of growth hormone on haemodynamics in patients with heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PATIENTS: Fifty clinically-stable patients with moderate heart failure (mean left ventricular ejection fraction = 26 +/- 2%) due to dilated cardiomyopthy were examined. MEASUREMENTS: Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with placebo or 2 IU/d sc human recombinant growth hormone for a mean of 14 weeks. Cardiac size and function were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. Central haemodynamics were obtained by right heart catheterization. Measurements of plasma noradrenaline, serum insulin-like growth factor-1, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 were performed by standard assays at baseline and at the end of the treatment period. RESULTS: The severity of heart failure as determined by stroke volume, left ventricular end diastolic diameter and plasma noradrenaline concentrations correlated significantly to baseline serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels (each P < 0.05). The growth hormone-induced increase of insulin-like growth factor-1 predicted the changes in ejection fraction (P < 0.05). A significant increase in ejection fraction of 7% was observed in patients whose insulin-like growth factor-1 increased by more than the median increase in comparison to the patients with an increase below the median (+ 4.0 +/- 2.3% vs. - 3.0 +/- 1.8%; P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1, reflecting growth hormone secretion, are diminished in relation to the severity of heart failure in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Growth hormone induced increases of insulin-like growth factor-1 of more than 77 ng/l caused significant improvement of ejection fraction.
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