L-Carinine: treatment mitochondrial dysfunction
Carnitine and coenzyme Q10: biochemical properties and functions, synergism and complementary action.Bertelli A, Ronca G. Department of Pharmacology, University of Milan, Italy.
The mechanisms by which carnitine and coenzyme Q10 intervene in the energetic metabolism are described. In particular, the metabolic stages in which the action of carnitine is complementary to the action of coenzyme Q10 are illustrated. The synergism of the pharmacological and therapeutic actions that is found when these compounds are administered together is explained on the basis of their biochemical and metabolic complementarity.
L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 protective action against ischaemia and reperfusion of working rat heart.Bertelli A, Ronca F, Ronca G, Palmieri L, Zucchi R. Institute of Biological Chemistry, University of Pisa, Italy.
The protective effect of L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10 and their combination on haemodynamic and metabolic variables has been investigated in isolated perfused working rat hearts after 10 min of global normothermic ischaemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion. In untreated rats or in rats treated only with L-carnitine or with coenzyme Q10, this experimental condition did not induce any irreversible myocardial injury as measured by leakage of cardiac enzymes; however, it decreased some haemodynamic parameters such as cardiac output and minute work, as well as the ATP concentration and the total adenine nucleotide pool. No variations in haemodynamic and metabolic parameters were observed in the rats treated with L-carnitine plus coenzyme Q10. In the perfusate of the hearts of the rats treated with both compounds, a lower purine release (a good index of myocardial energy balance) was also obtained. Although the molecular mechanisms remain to be defined, it appears that the association of L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 is more effective than using these compounds separately. The complementary and synergic actions of L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 on metabolism and against peroxidation by oxygen reaction species may explain the efficacy of their association.
Synergic and complementary effects of L-carnitine and coenzyme Q on long-chain fatty acid metabolism and on protection against anthracycline damage.Conte A, Palmieri L, Ronca G, Giovannini L, Bertelli A. Institute of Biological Chemistry, School of Medicine, University of Pisa, Italy.
Exogenous L-carnitine and coenzyme Q are used to protect the heart against anthracycline damage and to enhance energy metabolism in the heart and in the muscle. Though their metabolic function is well known and their effects on anthracycline damage have been largely studied, their combined action has not been investigated. Therefore we have used partially CoQ-depleted bovine mitochondria to evaluate the synergic action of CoQ and carnitine on palmitoylCoA oxidation, as an experimental model in which either CoQ or L-carnitine may be the limiting factor in the oxidation of activated fatty acids. The protective effect exerted by the combined use of L-carnitine and CoQ against damage by the anthracycline derivative doxorubicin has been compared to the protection exerted by each compound alone. The effect was evaluated by assessing oxygen consumption and 14C-leucine incorporation in rat heart slices. The results obtained suggest that the administration of an association of L-carnitine and CoQ exerts a stronger protection against anthracycline damage and induces a greater utilization of fatty acids as compared to the effects of each compound alone.
Protective synergic effect of coenzyme Q10 and carnitine on hyperbaric oxygen toxicity.Bertelli A, Bertelli AA, Giovannini L, Spaggiari P. Department of Pharmacology, University of Milan, Italy.
The comparative biochemical activities of coenzyme Q10 and carnitine can explain the protective synergistic effect of combination of these two substances in preventing the hyperbaric oxygen toxicity in mice. Both convulsions and mortality percentages are more significantly reduced in treated animals with these two substances in combination rather than separately.
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