Scientific base for a nutritional (supplement) therapy for congestive Heart Failure
Use this scientific information on cardiomyopathy when conferring with your general practitioner or cardiac specialist. For this study on cardiomyopathy I mostly used information from the prestigious The National Library of Medicine Database. The protocol for cardiomyopathy uses a large number of food supplements that are to be taken together with the regular medications prescribed by the medical/cardiac specialist.
Introduction to Coenzym Q10
HistoryCoQ10 was first isolated from beef heart mitochondria by Dr. Frederick Crane of Wisconsin, U.S.A., in 1957. The same year, Professor Morton of England defined a compound obtained from vitamin A deficient rat liver to be the same as CoQ10. Professor Morton introduced the name ubiquinone, meaning the ubiquitous quinone. (in fact, the compound has been called by the name ubiquinone from the word ubiquitous which means...it's everywhere, however, it's everywhere only in very small quantities) In 1958, Professor Karl Folkers and co-workers at Merck, Inc., determined the precise chemical structure of CoQ10: 2,3 dimethoxy-5 methyl-6 decaprenyl benzoquinone, synthesised it, and were the first to produce it by fermentation. In the mid-1960's, Professor Yamamura of Japan became the first in the world to use coenzyme Q7 (a related compound) in the treatment of human disease: congestive heart failure. In 1966, Mellors and Tappel showed that reduced CoQ6 was an effective antioxidant. In 1972 Gian Paolo Littarru of Italy along with Professor Karl Folkers documented a deficiency of CoQ10 in human heart disease. By the mid-1970's, the Japanese perfected the industrial technology to produce pure CoQ10 in quantities sufficient for larger clinical trials. Peter Mitchell received the Nobel Prize in 1978 for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory, which includes the vital protonmotive role of CoQ10 in energy transfer systems.
In the early 1980's, there was a considerable acceleration in the number and size of clinical trials. These resulted in part from the availability of pure CoQ10 in large quantities from pharmaceutical companies in Japan and from the capacity to directly measure CoQ10 in blood and tissue by high performance liquid chromatography. Lars Ernster of Sweden, enlarged upon CoQ10's importance as an antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Professor Karl Folkers went on to receive the Priestly Medal from the American Chemical Society in 1986 and the National Medal of Science from President Bush in 1990 for his work with CoQ10 and other vitamins.
What is CoQ10?Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) or ubiquinone is essentially a vitamin or vitamin-like substance. Disagreements on nomenclature notwithstanding, vitamins are defined as organic compounds essential in minute amounts for normal body function acting as coenzymes or precursors to coenzymes. They are present naturally in foods and sometimes are also synthesised in the body. CoQ10 likewise is found in small amounts in a wide variety of foods and is synthesised in all tissues. The biosynthesis of CoQ10 from the amino acid tyrosine is a multistage process requiring at least eight vitamins and several trace elements. Coenzymes are cofactors upon which the comparatively large and complex enzymes absolutely depend for their function. Coenzyme Q10 is the coenzyme for at least three mitochondrial enzymes (complexes I, II and III) as well as enzymes in other parts of the cell. Mitochondrial enzymes of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway are essential for the production of the high-energy phosphate, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), upon which all cellular functions depend. The electron and proton transfer functions of the quinone ring are of fundamental importance to all life forms; ubiquinone in the mitochondria of animals, plastoquinone in the chloroplast of plants, and menaquinone in bacteria. The term "bioenergetics" has been used to describe the field of biochemistry looking specifically at cellular energy production. In the related field of free radical chemistry, CoQ10 has been studied in its reduced form as a potent antioxidant. The bioenergetics and free radical chemistry of CoQ10 are reviewed in Gian Paolo Littarru's book, Energy and Defense, published in 1994.
Coenzyme q10 deficiencyNormal blood and tissue levels of CoQ10 have been well established by numerous investigators around the world. Significantly decreased levels of CoQ10 have been noted in a wide variety of diseases in both animal and human studies. CoQ10 deficiency may be caused by insufficient dietary CoQ10, impairment in CoQ10 biosynthesis, excessive utilisation of CoQ10 by the body, or any combination of the three. Decreased dietary intake is presumed in chronic malnutrition and cachexia.
The relative contribution of CoQ10 biosynthesis versus dietary CoQ10 is under investigation. Karl Folkers takes the position that the dominant source of CoQ10 in man is biosynthesis. This complex, 17 step process, requiring at least seven vitamins (vitamin B2 - riboflavin, vitamin B3 - niacinamide, vitamin B6, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin C, and pantothenic acid) and several trace elements, is, by its nature, highly vulnerable. Karl Folkers argues that suboptimal nutrient intake in man is almost universal and that there is subsequent secondary impairment in CoQ10 biosynthesis. This would mean that average or "normal" levels of CoQ10 are really suboptimal and the very low levels observed in advanced disease states represent only the tip of a deficiency "ice berg".
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors used to treat elevated blood cholesterol levels by blocking cholesterol biosynthesis also block CoQ10 biosynthesis. The resulting lowering of blood CoQ10 level is due to the partially shared biosynthetic pathway of CoQ10 and cholesterol. In patients with heart failure this is more than a laboratory observation. It has a significant harmful effect which can be negated by oral CoQ10 supplementation.
Increased body consumption of CoQ10 is the presumed cause of low blood CoQ10 levels seen in excessive exertion, hypermetabolism, and acute shock states. It is likely that all three mechanisms (insufficient dietary CoQ10, impaired CoQ10 biosynthesis, and excessive utilisation of CoQ10) are operable to varying degrees in most cases of observed CoQ10 deficiency.
Treatment of Treatment Congestive Heart Failure with CoQ10CoQ10 is known to be highly concentrated in heart muscle cells due to the high energy requirements of this cell type. For the past 14 years, the great bulk of clinical work with CoQ10 has focused on heart disease. Specifically, congestive heart failure (from a wide variety of causes) has been strongly correlated with significantly low blood and tissue levels of CoQ10. The severity of heart failure correlates with the severity of CoQ10 deficiency. This CoQ10 deficiency may well be a primary etiologic factor in some types of heart muscle dysfunction while in others it may be a secondary phenomenon. Whether primary, secondary or both, this deficiency of CoQ10 appears to be a major treatable factor in the otherwise inexorable progression of heart failure.
Pioneering trials of CoQ10 in heart failure involved primarily patients with dilated weak heart muscle of unknown cause (idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy). CoQ10 was added to standard treatments for heart failure such as fluid pills (diuretics), digitalis preparations (Lanoxin), and ACE inhibitors. Several trials involved the comparison between supplemental CoQ10 and placebo on heart function as measured by echocardiography. CoQ10 was given orally in divided doses as a dry tablet chewed with a fat containing food or an oil based gel cap swallowed at mealtime. Heart function, as indicated by the fraction of blood pumped out of the heart with each beat (the ejection fraction), showed a gradual and sustained improvement in tempo with a gradual and sustained improvement in patients' symptoms of fatigue, dyspnea, chest pain, and palpitations. The degree of improvement was occasionally dramatic with some patients developing a normal heart size and function on CoQ10 alone. Most of these dramatic cases were patients who began CoQ10 shortly after the onset of congestive heart failure. Patients with more established disease frequently showed clear improvement but not a return to normal heart size and function.
Internationally, there have been at least nine placebo controlled studies on the treatment of heart disease with CoQ10:two in Japan,two in the United States, two in Italy, two in Germany, and one in Sweden. All nine of these studies have confirmed the effectiveness of CoQ10 as well as its remarkable safety. There have now been eight international symposia on the biomedical and clinical aspects of CoQ10 (from 1976 through 1993). These eight symposia comprised over 300 papers presented by approximately 200 different physicians and scientists from 18 different countries. The majority of these scientific papers were Japanese (34%), with American (26%), Italian (20%) and the remaining 20% from Sweden, Denmark, Germany, United Kingdom, Belgium, Australia, Austria, France, India, Korea, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland, USSR, and Finland. The majority of the clinical studies concerned the treatment of heart disease and were remarkably consistent in their conclusions: that treatment with CoQ10 significantly improved heart muscle function while producing no adverse effects or drug interactions. It should be mentioned that a slight decrease in the effectiveness of the blood thinner, coumadin, was noted in a case by a Norwegian clinician. This possible drug - CoQ10 interaction has not been observed by other investigators even when using much higher doses of CoQ10 for up to seven years and involving 25 patients treated with coumadin concomitantly with CoQ10 (this is still, as of this date, unpublished data).
The efficacy and safety of CoQ10 in the treatment of congestive heart failure, whether related to primary cardiomyopathies or secondary forms of heart failure, appears to be well established. The largest study to date is the Italian multicenter trial, by Baggio et al., involving 2664 patients with heart failure.
The most recent work in heart failure examined the effect of CoQ10 on diastolic dysfunction, one of the earliest identifiable signs of myocardial failure that is often found in mitral valve prolapse, hypertensive heart disease and certain fatigue syndromes. Diastolic dysfunction might be considered the common denominator and a basic cause of symptoms in these three diagnostic groups of disease. Diastole is the filling phase of the cardiac cycle. Diastolic function has a larger cellular energy requirement than the systolic contraction and, therefore, the process of diastolic relaxation is more highly energy dependent and thus more highly dependent on CoQ10. In simpler terms, it takes more energy to fill the heart than to empty it. Diastolic dysfunction is a stiffening' of the heart muscle which interferes with the heart's ability to function as an effective pump. It is seen early in the course of many common cardiac disorders and is demonstrable by echocardiography. This stiffening returns towards normal with supplemental CoQ10 in tempo with clinical improvement.
It is important to note that in all of the above clinical trials, CoQ10 was used in addition to traditional medical treatments, not to their exclusion. In one study by Langsjoen et al, of 109 patients with essential hypertension, 51% were able to stop between one and three antihypertensive drugs at an average of 4.4 months after starting CoQ10 treatment while the overall New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class improved significantly from a mean of 2.40 to 1.36. Hypertension is reduced when diastolic function improves. In another study, there was a gradual and sustained decrease in dosage or discontinuation of concomitant cardiovascular drug therapy: Of 424 patients with cardiovascular disease, 43% were able to stop between one and three cardiovascular drugs with CoQ10 therapy. The authors conclude that the vitamin-like substance, CoQ10, "may be ushering in the new era of cellular/biochemical treatment of disease, complementing and extending the systems-oriented, macro and microscopic approach that has served us well to this point".
If CoQ10 is so effective in the treatment of congestive heart failure, why is it not more generally used in this country?
While the pharmaceutical industry does a good job at physician and patient education on their new products, the distributors of CoQ10 are not as effective at this. This education is very costly and can only be done with the reasonable expectation of patent protected profit. CoQ10 is not patentable.
The discovery of CoQ10 was based primarily on support from the National Heart Institute of NIH (National Institute of Health) at the Institute for Enzyme Research, University of Wisconsin.
Is CoQ10 safe?Yes. many studies have confirmed that CoQ10 is safe. One Study, which evaluated the effects of CoQ10 supplementation on 2,500 patients diagnosed with congestive heart failure (50-150 mg. of CoQ10 daily for three months), reported that patients showed remarkable improvement in clinical signs and symptoms, without adverse side effects. The results of this study were remarkable; 75% of patients reported improvements in palpitations and 54% of the patients reported improvements in at least 3 symptoms. This study and many others conclude that CoQ10 supplementation is safe and effective.
Co-enzym Q10: increasing cardiac output (EJF), scientific review
Therapy with coenzyme Q10 of patients in congestive heart failure who are eligible or ineligible for a transplantFolkers K, Langsjoen P, Langsjoen PH. Institute for Biomedical Research, University of Texas, Austin 78712.
Twenty years of international open and seven double blind trials established the efficacy and safety of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) to treat patients in congestive heart failure. In the U.S., ca. 20,000 patients under 65 years are eligible for transplants, but donors are less than 1/10th of those eligible, and there are many more such patients over 65, both eligible and ineligible. We treated eleven exemplary transplant candidates with CoQ10; all improved; three improved from Class IV to Class I; four improved from Classes III-IV to Class II; and two improved from Class III to Class I or II. After CoQ10, some patients required no conventional drugs and had no limitation in lifestyle. The marked improvement is based upon correcting myocardial deficiencies of CoQ10 which improve mitochondrial bioenergetics and cardiac performance. These case histories, and very substantial background proof of efficacy and safety, justify treating with CoQ10 patients in failure awaiting transplantation.
Response of patients in classes III and IV of Congestive Heart Failure to therapy in a blind and crossover trial with coenzyme Q10Langsjoen PH, Vadhanavikit S, Folkers K.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a biochemically established redox component of respiration including the coupled mechanisms of electron transfer and oxidative phosphorylation, is naturally present in the human myocardium. A double-blind and double-crossover trial has been conducted by administering CoQ10 and a matching placebo orally to two groups of patients having class III or IV Congestive Heart Failure (classification according to criteria of the New York Heart Association). Group A received CoQ10 and then placebo; group B received placebo and then CoQ10. Blood levels of CoQ10 and cardiac function were determined at 0 and 4 weeks (control stabilization period) and at 16 and 28 weeks (after the 12-week CoQ/placebo-treatment periods). For group A, significant increases in CoQ10 blood levels and cardiac function occurred during CoQ10 treatment and then decreased during crossover to placebo. For group B, there was no change in CoQ10 blood levels and cardiac function during placebo treatment, but increases in both parameters occurred in crossover to CoQ10. These patients, steadily worsening and expected to die within 2 years under conventional therapy, generally showed an extraordinary clinical improvement, indicating that CoQ10 therapy might extend the lives of such patients. This improvement could be due to correction of a myocardial deficiency of CoQ10 and to enhanced synthesis of CoQ10-requiring enzymes.
Coenzyme Q10: clinical benefits with biochemical correlates suggesting a scientific breakthrough in the management of chronic congestive heart failureAuthor(s): Mortensen SA; Vadhanavikit S; Muratsu K; Folkers K Address: Medical Department B, University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. Source: Int J Tissue React 1990;12(3):155-62
Abstract: There are obviously several causes of myocardial dysfunction but energy deficiency of the myocytes may play a significant role and probably is a common mechanism during the progression of myocardial failure. Theoretically, a poor utilization efficiency of oxygen may be due to exhaustion of the myocardial stores of bioenergetics. In this report the authors review their biochemical results from measurements of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) levels in blood and human endomyocardial biopsies using an HPLC method from patients with suspected myocardial disease (n = 45). The levels of CoQ10, which has a key role in the respiratory chain and the synthesis of ATP, was found to be significantly decreased in various groups of patients with myocardial failure (dilated and restrictive Congestive Heart Failure and alcoholic heart disease) as compared to "normal" myocardium (0.42 +/- 0.04 micrograms/mg dry weight). The deficiency of CoQ10 was more pronounced with increasing symptoms; e.g. patients with dilated cardiomyopathy in NYHA Classes III and IV had lower tissue CoQ10 content than those of Classes I and II (0.28 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.37 +/- 0.06 micrograms/mg, p less than 0.001). Nearly two thirds of a series of 40 patients in severe heart failure (Classes III and IV) treated with CoQ10, 100 mg daily, in an open, controlled design showed subjective and objective improvement. Clinical responders were 69% and 43% of patients with cardiomyopathy and ischaemic heart disease, respectively. The results suggest that CoQ10 is a novel and effective breakthrough in heart-failure therapy and it appears safe, as no adverse reactions were registered. The through in heart-failure therapy and it appears safe, as no adverse reactions were registered.(
Italian multicenter study on the safety and efficacy of coenzyme Q10 as adjunctive therapy in congestive heart failure. CoQ10 Drug Surveillance InvestigatorsBaggio E, Gandini R, Plancher AC, Passeri M, Carmosino G.Department of Internal Medicine, V. Buzzi Hospital, Reggio Emilia.
Digitalis, diuretics and vasodilators are considered the standard therapy for patients with congestive heart failure, for which treatment is tailored according to the severity of the syndrome and the patient profile. Apart from the clinical seriousness, congestive heart failure is always characterized by an energy depletion status, as indicated by low intramyocardial ATP and coenzyme Q10 levels. We investigated safety and clinical efficacy of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) adjunctive treatment in congestive heart failure which had been diagnosed at least 6 months previously and treated with standard therapy. A total of 2664 patients in NYHA classes II and III were enrolled in this open noncomparative 3-month postmarketing study in 173 Italian centers. The daily dosage of CoQ10 was 50-150 mg orally, with the majority of patients (78%) receiving 100 mg/day. Clinical and laboratory parameters were evaluated at the entry into the study and on day 90; the assessment of clinical signs and symptoms was made using from two-to seven-point scales. The results show a low incidence of side effects: 38 adverse effects were reported in 36 patients (1.5%) of which 22 events were considered as correlated to the test treatment. After three months of test treatment the proportions of patients with improvement in clinical signs and symptoms were as follows: cyanosis 78.1%, oedema 78.6%, pulmonary rales 77.8%, enlargement of liver area 49.3%, jugular reflux 71.81%, dyspnoea 52.7%, palpitations 75.4%, sweating 79.8%, subjective arrhytmia 63.4%, insomnia 662.8%, vertigo 73.1% and nocturia 53.6%. Moreover we observed a contemporary improvement of at least three symptoms in 54% of patients; this could be interpreted as an index of improved quality of life.
Effective and safe therapy with coenzyme Q10 for Congestive Heart FailureLangsjoen PH, Folkers K, Lyson K, Muratsu K, Lyson T, Langsjoen P.Department of Medicine, Scott and White Clinic, Temple, Texas.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is indispensable in mitochondrial bioenergetics and for human life to exist. 88/115 patients completed a trial of therapy with CoQ10 for Congestive Heart Failure. Patients were selected on the basis of clinical criteria, X-rays, electrocardiograms, echocardiography, and coronary angiography. Responses were monitored by ejection fractions, cardiac output, and improvements in functional classifications (NYHA). Of the 88 patients 75%-85% showed statistically significant increases in two monitored cardiac parameters. Patients with the lowest ejection fractions (approx. 10%-30%) showed the highest increases (115 delta %-210 delta %) and those with higher ejection fractions (50%-80%) showed increases of approx. 10 delta %-25 delta % on therapy. By functional classification, 17/21 in class IV, 52/62 in class III, and 4/5 in class II improved to lower classes. Clinical responses appeared over variable times, and are presumably based on mechanisms of DNA-RNA-protein synthesis of apoenzymes which restore levels of CoQ10 enzymes in a deficiency state. 10/21 (48%) of patients in class IV, 26/62 (42%) in class III, and 2/5 (40%) in class II had exceptionally low control blood levels of CoQ10. Clinical responses on therapy with CoQ10 appear maximal with blood levels of approx. 2.5 micrograms CoQ10/ml and higher during therapy.
Perspectives on therapy of cardiovascular diseases with coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone)Author(s): Mortensen SA Address: Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Rigshospitalet B 2142, State University Hospital, Copenhagen. Source: Clin Investig 1993;71(8 Suppl):S116-23
Abstract: A defective myocardial energy supply--due to lack of substrates and/or essential cofactors and a poor utilization efficiency of oxygen--may be a common final pathway in the progression of myocardial diseases of various etiologies. The vitamin-like essential substance coenzyme Q10, or ubiquinone, is a natural antioxidant and has a key role in oxidative phosphorylation. A biochemical rationale for using coenzyme Q10 as a therapy in heart disease was established years ago by Folkers and associates; however, this has been further strengthened by investigations of viable myocardial tissue from the author's series of 45 patients with various cardiomyopathies. Myocardial tissue levels of coenzyme Q10 determined by high-performance lipid chromatography were found to be significantly lower in patients with more advanced Congestive Heart Failure compared with those in the milder stages of Congestive Heart Failure. Furthermore, the myocardial tissue coenzyme Q10 deficiency might be restored significantly by oral supplementation in selected cases. In the author's open clinical protocol study with coenzyme Q10 therapy (100 mg daily) nearly two-thirds of patients revealed clinical improvement, most pronounced in those with dilated cardiomyopathy. Double-blind placebo-controlled trials have definitely confirmed that coenzyme Q10 has a place as adjunctive treatment in Congestive Heart Failure with beneficial effects on the clinical outcome, the patients' physical activity, and their quality of life. The positive results have been above and beyond the clinical status obtained from treatment with traditional principles--including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
Co-enzyme Q10: a new drug for cardiovascular diseaseAuthor(s): Greenberg S; Frishman WH Address: Department of Medicine, Mt. Sinai Hospital and Medical Center, New York, New York. Source: J Clin Pharmacol 1990 Jul;30(7):596-608
Abstract: Co-enzyme Q10 (ubiquinone) is a naturally occurring substance which has properties potentially beneficial for preventing cellular damage during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. It plays a role in oxidative phosphorylation and has membrane stabilizing activity. The substance has been used in oral form to treat various cardiovascular disorders including angina pectoris, hypertension, and congestive heart failure. Its clinical importance is now being established in clinical trails worldwide
A six-year clinical study of therapy of Congestive Heart Failure with coenzyme Q10Langsjoen PH, Langsjoen PH, Folkers K. Department of Medicine, Scott & White Clinic, Temple, TX.
One hundred and forty-three cases of chronic, stable, non-secondary, non-hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 98% of whom were in NYHA Classes III and IV, were given 100 mg of coenzyme Q10 orally in addition to their conventional medical programme in an open-label long-term study. Blood CoQ10 levels, clinical status, myocardial function and survival have been recorded now for almost 6 years. Mean control/CoQ10 levels of 0.85 micrograms/ml rose to 2 micrograms/ml in 3 months and remained stable at that level. Mean ejection fraction of 44% measured by systolic time interval analysis rose to 60% within 6 months and stabilized at that level with 84% of patients showing statistically significant improvement. Eighty-five percent of patients improved by one or two NYHA Classes. Survival figures were encouraging with an 11.1% mortality in 12 months and 17.8% mortality in 24 months, comparing favourably with several reports in the literature. There was no positive evidence of toxicity or intolerance in a total of 368.9 patient-years of exposure. Coenzyme Q10 is safe and effective long-term therapy for chronic cardiomyopathy.
Treatment of congestive heart failure with coenzyme Q10 illuminated by meta-analyses of clinical trialsSoja AM, Mortensen SA. Department of Medicine, County Hospital Sct. Elisabeth, Copenhagen, Denmark.
The purpose of this was to investigate the effect of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) by measuring the possible improvement of certain relevant hemodynamic heart parameters. A statistic aggregation method know as a meta-analysis was used to measure the changes in the cardiac parameters. To begin with we collected the total number of randomized controlled trials and from a total of 14 studies published in the period of 1984-1994, eight studies met our inclusion criteria. The rest were excluded because of a lack of data which made a meta-analysis impossible. The relevant effect parameters investigated were stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), ejection fraction (EF), cardiac index (CI), end diastolic volume index (EDVI), systolic time intervals (PEP/LVET) and total work capacity (Wmax). Seven meta-analyses were performed, one for each of the parameters, and the calculated effect sizes were all positive. Statistical significance could be demonstrated for all of the parameters except the PEP/LVET and Wmax thereby indicating an improvement of greater or lesser magnitude in the CoQ10 group as opposed to the placebo group. Accordingly, the average patient in the CoQ10 group had a better score with regard to SV and CO than 76 and 73% respectively of the patients in the placebo group. In conclusion, supplemental treatment of Congestive Heart Failure with CoQ10 is consistent with an improvement of SV, EF, CO, CI and EDVI. Homogeneity could be established for SV and CO. Additional clinical trials of the effect of CoQ10 on Congestive Heart Failure are necessary, but, on the basis of the evidence currently available, the possibility remains that CoQ10 will receive a well-documented role as an adjunctive treatment of Congestive Heart Failure.
Long-term coenzyme Q10 therapy: a major advance in the management of resistant myocardial failureMortensen SA, Vadhanavikit S, Baandrup U, Folkers K.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) treatment, orally administered as 100 mg daily dose, was initiated in a series of patients with advanced Congestive Heart Failure in an open, controlled design. They were all showing an insufficient response to classical therapy with diuretics and digitalis. Twelve patients with various causes of Congestive Heart Failure, classified clinically by echocardiography (ECHO), (12/12), and heart catheterization with endomyocardial biopsy, (10/12), were followed prospectively for a mean period of seven months. Serial assessments: Clinical examination (with questionnaire), ECG, chest X-ray, ECHO, systolic time intervals (STI) and blood levels of CoQ10 were performed. With a mean latency period of 30 days, eight out of 12 patients (67%) showed definite clinical improvement. Subjectively, the patients felt less tired, their general activity tolerance increased and dyspnoea at rest disappeared. There were obvious signs of decreased right-sided stasis (hepatic congestion). The heart rate fell significantly, and the heart volume (chest X-ray) decreased in the eight responders (although n.s.). A significant reduction in the left atrial size (ECHO) was registered, suggesting a reduced preload of the left ventricle, Furthermore, a significant decline in the PEP/LVET ratio (STI) was indicative of an improved myocardial performance. Preliminary CoQ10 withdrawal results showed severe clinical relapse with subsequent improvement on CoQ10 reinstatement, supporting the interpretation that treatment of these patients corrected a myocardial deficiency of CoQ10 and increased contractility. Hence CoQ10 appears to be an effective therapeutic agent in advanced cases of Congestive Heart Failure. This is an attractive circumvention of the traditional principles of therapy: supporting the myocardium directly by ameliorating a supposed underlying mitochondrial dysfunction (exhausted bioenergetics).
Usefulness of coenzyme Q10 in clinical cardiology: a long-term studyLangsjoen H, Langsjoen P, Langsjoen P, Willis R, Folkers K.University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston 77551, USA.
Over an eight year period (1985-1993), we treated 424 patients with various forms of cardiovascular disease by adding coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) to their medical regimens. Doses of CoQ10 ranged from 75 to 600 mg/day by mouth (average 242 mg). Treatment was primarily guided by the patient's clinical response. In many instances, CoQ10 levels were employed with the aim of producing a whole blood level greater than or equal to 2.10 micrograms/ml (average 2.92 micrograms/ml, n = 297). Patients were followed for an average of 17.8 months, with a total accumulation of 632 patient years. Eleven patients were omitted from this study: 10 due to non-compliance and one who experienced nausea. Eighteen deaths occurred during the study period with 10 attributable to cardiac causes. Patients were divided into six diagnostic categories: ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), primary diastolic dysfunction (PDD), hypertension (HTN), mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and valvular heart disease (VHD). For the entire group and for each diagnostic category, we evaluated clinical response according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional scale, and found significant improvement. Of 424 patients, 58 per cent improved by one NYHA class, 28% by two classes and 1.2% by three classes. A statistically significant improvement in myocardial function was documented using the following echocardiographic parameters: left ventricular wall thickness, mitral valve inflow slope and fractional shortening. Before treatment with CoQ10, most patients were taking from one to five cardiac medications. During this study, overall medication requirements dropped considerably: 43% stopped between one and three drugs. Only 6% of the patients required the addition of one drug. No apparent side effects from CoQ10 treatment were noted other than a single case of transient nausea. In conclusion, CoQ10 is a safe and effective adjunctive treatment for a broad range of cardiovascular diseases, producing gratifying clinical responses while easing the medical and financial burden of multidrug therapy.
Biochemical functions of coenzyme Q10Crane FL. Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.
Coenzyme Q is well defined as a crucial component of the oxidative phosphorylation process in mitochondria which converts the energy in carbohydrates and fatty acids into ATP to drive cellular machinery and synthesis. New roles for coenzyme Q in other cellular functions are only becoming recognized. The new aspects have developed from the recognition that coenzyme Q can undergo oxidation/reduction reactions in other cell membranes such as lysosomes. Golgi or plasma membranes. In mitochondria and lysosomes, coenzyme Q undergoes reduction/oxidation cycles during which it transfers protons across the membrane to form a proton gradient. The presence of high concentrations of quinol in all membranes provides a basis for antioxidant action either by direct reaction with radicals or by regeneration of tocopherol and ascorbate. Evidence for a function in redox control of cell signaling and gene expression is developing from studies on coenzyme Q stimulation of cell growth, inhibition of apoptosis, control of thiol groups, formation of hydrogen peroxide and control of membrane channels. Deficiency of coenzyme Q has been described based on failure of biosynthesis caused by gene mutation, inhibition of biosynthesis by HMG coA reductase inhibitors (statins) or for unknown reasons in ageing and cancer. Correction of deficiency requires supplementation with higher levels of coenzyme Q than are available in the diet.
Biochemical, physiological and medical aspects of ubiquinone functionErnster L, Dallner G. Department of Biochemistry, Arrhenius Laboratories for Natural Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden.
This presentation is a brief review of current knowledge concerning some biochemical, physiological and medical aspects of the function of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) in mammalian organisms. In addition to its well-established function as a component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, ubiquinone has in recent years acquired increasing attention with regard to its function in the reduced form (ubiquinol) as an antioxidant. Ubiquinone, partly in the reduced form, occurs in all cellular membranes as well as in blood serum and in serum lipoproteins. Ubiquinol efficiently protects membrane phospholipids and serum low-density lipoprotein from lipid peroxidation, and, as recent data indicate, also mitochondrial membrane proteins and DNA from free-radical induced oxidative damage. These effects of ubiquinol are independent of those of exogenous antioxidants, such as vitamin E, although ubiquinol can also potentiate the effect of vitamin E by regenerating it from its oxidized form. Tissue ubiquinone levels are regulated through the mevalonate pathway, increasing upon various forms of oxidative stress, and decreasing during aging. Drugs inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis via the mevalonate pathway may inhibit or stimulate ubiquinone biosynthesis, depending on their site of action. Administration of ubiquinone as a dietary supplement seems to lead primarily to increased serum levels, which may account for most of the reported beneficial effects of ubiquinone intake in various instances of experimental and clinical medicine.
Overview of the use of CoQ10 in cardiovascular diseaseLangsjoen PH, Langsjoen AM.
The clinical experience in cardiology with CoQ10 includes studies on congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle, and reperfusion injury as it relates to coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The CoQ10-lowering effect of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and the potential adverse consequences are of growing concern. Supplemental CoQ10 alters the natural history of cardiovascular illnesses and has the potential for prevention of cardiovascular disease through the inhibition of LDL cholesterol oxidation and by the maintenance of optimal cellular and mitochondrial function throughout the ravages of time and internal and external stresses. The attainment of higher blood levels of CoQ10 (> 3.5 micrograms/ml) with the use of higher doses of CoQ10 appears to enhance both the magnitude and rate of clinical improvement. In this communication, 34 controlled trials and several open-label and long-term studies on the clinical effects of CoQ10 in cardiovascular diseases are reviewed.
Coenzyme Q10 therapy before cardiac surgery improves mitochondrial function and in vitro contractility of myocardial tissueRosenfeldt F, Marasco S, Lyon W, Wowk M, Sheeran F, Bailey M, Esmore D, Davis B, Pick A, Rabinov M, Smith J, Nagley P, Pepe S. The Cardiac Surgical Research Unit, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Alfred Hospital, Baker Heart Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.
OBJECTIVES: Previous clinical trials suggest that coenzyme Q(10) might afford myocardial protection during cardiac surgery. We sought to measure the effect of coenzyme Q(10) therapy on coenzyme Q(10) levels in serum, atrial trabeculae, and mitochondria; to assess the effect of coenzyme Q(10) on mitochondrial function; to test the effect of coenzyme Q(10) in protecting cardiac myocardium against a standard hypoxia-reoxygentation stress in vitro; and to determine whether coenzyme Q(10) therapy improves recovery of the heart after cardiac surgery. METHODS: Patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery were randomized to receive oral coenzyme Q(10) (300 mg/d) or placebo for 2 weeks preoperatively. Pectinate trabeculae from right atrial appendages were excised, and mitochondria were isolated and studied. Trabeculae were subjected to 30 minutes of hypoxia, and contractile recovery was measured. Postoperative cardiac function and troponin I release were assessed. RESULTS: Patients receiving coenzyme Q(10) (n = 62) had increased coenzyme Q(10) levels in serum (P = .001), atrial trabeculae (P = .0001), and isolated mitochondria (P = .0002) compared with levels seen in patients receiving placebo (n = 59). Mitochondrial respiration (adenosine diphosphate/oxygen ratio) was more efficient (P = .012), and mitochondrial malondialdehyde content was lower (P = .002) with coenzyme Q(10) than with placebo. After 30 minutes of hypoxia in vitro, pectinate trabeculae isolated from patients receiving coenzyme Q(10) exhibited a greater recovery of developed force compared with those in patients receiving placebo (46.3% +/- 4.3% vs 64.0% +/- 2.9%, P = .001). There was no between-treatment difference in preoperative or postoperative hemodynamics or in release of troponin I. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative oral coenzyme Q(10) therapy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery increases myocardial and cardiac mitochondrial coenzyme Q(10) levels, improves mitochondrial efficiency, and increases myocardial tolerance to in vitro hypoxia-reoxygenation stress.
Randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 in patients with acute myocardial infarctionSingh RB, Wander GS, Rastogi A, Shukla PK, Mittal A, Sharma JP, Mehrotra SK, Kapoor R, Chopra RK.Heart Research Laboratory, Centre of Nutrition Medical Hospital and Research Centre, Moradabad, India.
The effects of oral treatment with coenzyme Q10 (120 mg/d) were compared for 28 days in 73 (intervention group A) and 71 (placebo group B) patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). After treatment, angina pectoris (9.5 vs. 28.1), total arrhythmias (9.5% vs. 25.3%), and poor left ventricular function (8.2% vs. 22.5%) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in the coenzyme Q group than placebo group. Total cardiac events, including cardiac deaths and nonfatal infarction, were also significantly reduced in the coenzyme Q10 group compared with the placebo group (15.0% vs. 30.9%, P < 0.02). The extent of cardiac disease, elevation in cardiac enzymes, and oxidative stress at entry to the study were comparable between the two groups. Lipid peroxides, diene conjugates, and malondialdehyde, which are indicators of oxidative stress, showed a greater reduction in the treatment group than in the placebo group. The antioxidants vitamin A, E, and C and beta-carotene, which were lower initially after AMI, increased more in the coenzyme Q10 group than in the placebo group. These findings suggest that coenzyme Q10 can provide rapid protective effects in patients with AMI if administered within 3 days of the onset of symptoms. More studies in a larger number of patients and long-term follow-up are needed to confirm our results.
Dose-related decrease of serum coenzyme Q10 during treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitorsMortensen SA, Leth A, Agner E, Rohde M. Department of Medicine B, National University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone) the essential mitochondrial redox-component and endogenous antioxidant, packaged into the LDL + VLDL fractions of cholesterol, has been suggested as an important anti-risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis as explained by the oxidative theory. Forty-five hypercholesterolemic patients were randomized in a double-blind trial in order to be treated with increasing dosages of either lovastatin (20-80 mg/day) or pravastatin (10-40 mg/day) over a period of 18 weeks. Serum levels of coenzyme Q10 were measured parallel to the levels of cholesterol at baseline on placebo and diet and during active treatment. A dose-related significant decline of the total serum level of coenzyme Q10 was found in the pravastatin group from 1.27 +/- 0.34 at baseline to 1.02 +/- 0.31 mmol/l at the end of the study period (mean +/- S.D.), P < 0.01. After lovastatin therapy the decrease was significant as well and more pronounced, from 1.18 +/- 0.36 to 0.84 +/- 0.17 mmol/l, P < 0.001. Although HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are safe and effective within a limited time horizon, continued vigilance of a possible adverse consequence from coenzyme Q10 lowering seems important during long-term therapy.
- Candida: Candida infectie - CVS/ME: Chronische vermoeidheid Syndroom - Diabetische complicaties: Behandeling diabetische complicaties - Neuropathie - Retinopathie - Nefropathie - Bloeduiker stabilisatie - Hart en vaatziekten: Cardiomyopathie en Hartfalen - Cardiomyopathy and Heart Failure - Hoge bloeddruk - Cholesterol verlaging - Aderverkalking (atherosclerose) - Spataderen - Levensverlenging: Levensverlenging - DHEA - Melatonine - 65+ - Kanker: - Ondersteuningstherapie bij kanker - Bot en gewricht aandoeningen: - Artrose - Artritis - Osteoporose - Fibromyalgie: - Fibromyalgie - Urinewegen: - Prostaatklachten - Blaasontsteking - Maag- darm aandoeningen: Prikkelbaar Darm Syndroom - Crohn - Colitus Ulcerosa - Voeding: Voeding wat is er mis mee - Melk - Suiker - Aanvulling onvolwaardige voeding - Vitamine supplementen: Voedingssupplementen - Overgewicht: - Overgewicht - SLIM - Oogaandoeningen: - Staar - Slecht ziendheid - Andere artikelen: - HPU - Astma - Multiple Sclerose - Alzheimer - Psoriasis - Depressie - Premenstrueel Syndroom - Orthomoleculaire Geneeskunde